WCP Bibliography

History of Art 192A, Undergrad Seminar in Chinese Ptg, Fall 1993: Portraits and Pictures of Women in Chinese Painting

I. Women in history, virtuous women etc.

Ayscough, Florence. Chinese Women, Yesterday and Today. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1937. (Includes section on Pan Chao with trans. of her Nü chieh, "Precepts for Women," pp. 228-49).

Chung, Priscilla. Palace Women in the Northern Sung, 960-1126, Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1981. (HQ1767 C41 1981)

Lai, Chuhui Judy. The Han Representation of Exemplary Women: Context and Interpretation. Doctoral dissertation, U.C.L.A., 1991. On women in Wu Liang Tz'u and other Han mortuary-shrine engravings.

O'Hara, Albert, S.J. The Position of Woman in early China According to the Lieh Nü Chuan, "The Biographies of Chinese Women." Taipei, 1971. Principally a translation of this text.

II. Position of women in Chinese society.

Bernhardt, Kathryn (UCLA History Dept.), "A Ming-Qing Transition in Chinese Women's History?" Paper for Conference on "Rethinking Chinese Women's History," UCLA, Nov. 13, 1993.

Birge, Bettina (now asst. prof. at U.S.C.), "Women and Property in Sung Dynasty China (960-1279): Neo-Confucianism and Social Change in Chien-chou, Fukien." Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia U., 1992.

Ch'ü, T'ung-tsu. Law and Society in Traditional China. Cambridge? 1959? (check biblio. info., missing from my Taipei reprint). Ch. 2: Marriage (and divorce, concubinage, etc.) More about the legal basis than about actual practice.

Eastman, Lloyd E., Family, Field, and Ancestors: Constancy and Change in China's Social and Economic History, 1550-1949, New York and Oxford, Oxford U. Press, 1988, espec. pp. 19-40: "The Changing Status of Women." Interesting summary, ranging all over the subject.

Ebrey, Patricia, "Women, Marriage, and the Family in Chinese History." In: Paul S. Ropp, ed., Heritage of China: Contemporary Perspectives on Chinese Civilization. Useful summary. Also, same author: Confucianism and Family Rituals, also other writings.

Ebrey, Patricia. The Inner Quarters: Marriage and the Lives of Chinese Women in the Sung Period. Berkeley, U.C. Press, 1993.

Furth, Charlotte. "Ming-Qing Medicine and the Construction of Gender." Yale Conference, 295-308.

Gates, Hill, "The Commodification of Chinese Women." In Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 14.4, Summer 1989, 799-832.

Guisso, Ricard W., and Stanley Johannesen, Women in China: Current Directions in Historical Scholarship, Youngstown, N.Y., Philo Press, 1981.

Handlin, Joanna F. "Lü K'un's New Audience: The Influence of Women's Literacy on Sixteenth-Century Thought." In: Wolf & Witke, eds. (see below), 13-38.

Herschatter, Gail: look into her writings. Studied prostitutes, their "fictive families," pseudo-kinship groups w/in houses. Wrote on prostitution in early 20c, and literature of it. In CAA talk, cited Stephen Chen's writing on courtesan novels and who read them (middle/lower class people who had no access to courtesans themselves.) Essay by her in Watson & Ebrey book, see below.

Knapp, Bettina L. Images of Chinese Women: A Westerner's View. Troy, New York, Whitson Pub. Co., 1992. (HQ1767 K6 1992) Privately published? Not very fastidious in its scholarship: rather free imagination.

Ko, Dorothy, "Pursuing Talent and Virtue: Education and Women's Culture in 17th- and 18th-century China." Late Imperial China 13.1, June 1992, 9-39.

-- "Toward a Social History of Women in Seventeenth-Century China." Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford U., 1989.

-- Teachers of the Inner Chambers: Women and Culture in Seventeenth-Century China. Stanford U. Press, 1994.

Lang, Olga, Chinese Family and Society, New Haven, Yale U. Press, 1946; reprint, Taipei, 1985. Ch. IV, "Love, Marriage, Divorce." Ch. V, "Women in the Family and Society of Old China."

Li, Yu-ning, ed. Chinese Women through Chinese Eyes. New York and London, M. E. Sharpe, 1992. (HQ1767 C454 1992) Useful collection of essays, mostly trans. from Chinese.

Lin, Yutang, Widow, Nun, and Courtesan. New York, J. Day Co., 1951. PL3277 E8L5. See also his "Feminist Thought in Ancient China," T'ien Hsia Monthly 1/2, Sept. 1935; reprinted in Li Yu-ning collection (see above) pp. 34-58.

Mann, Susan (U.C. Davis). "Grooming a Daughter for Marriage: Brides and Wives in the Mid-Ch'ing Period." In: Watson and Ebrey, eds., Marriage and Inequality, 204-230.

-- "'Fuxue' (Women's Learning) by Zhang Xuecheng (1738-1801): China's First History of Women's Culture." Late Imperial China 13/1, June 1992, 40-62.

-- "The Feminist Turn in Confucian History." Paper for Conference on "Rethinking Chinese Women's History," UCLA, Nov. 13, 1993.

-- Precious Records: Women in China's Long Eighteenth Century. Stanford U. Press, 1997.

(Note: Mann gave lecture at UCB, Sept. 18, 1992 on "Courtesans in Context: The 18th Century." Has she published on this? )

McDermott, Joseph P., "The Chinese Domestic Bursar." In Masayoshi Uozumi, ed., Tradition and Modernization: Essays in Honour of the 70th Birthday of Professor Kyoko Takeda Cho, special issue of Ajiya Bunka, 1990. On women's control of family finances.

Pruitt, Ida. A Daughter of Han: The Autobiography of a Chinese Working Woman. Yale U. Press, 1945; reprint, Stanford U. Press, 1967. A kind of autobiography, told through Pruitt, of Ning Lao T'ai-tai, 1867-after 1938.

-- Old Madam Yin: A Memoir of Peking Life, 1926-1938. Stanford U. Press, 1967.

Ropp, Paul S. "The Seeds of Change: Reflections on the Condition of Women in the Early and Mid Ch'ing." In Signs 2.1, Autumn 1976, 5-23.

Rowe, William T. "Women and the Family in Mid-Qing Social Thought: The Case of Chen Hongmou." Late Imperial China 13.2, Dec. 1992, 1-41.

Tu, Wei-ming, "On Neo-Confucianism and Human-relatedness." In: George A. De Vos and Takao Sufue, ed., Religion and the Family in East Asia, pp. 111-125. (In: Senri Ethnological Studies 11, 1984?) Xerox. On position of women in Chinese family.

Watson, Rubie S., and Patricia Buckley Ebrey, ed., Marriage and Inequality in Chinese Society, Berkeley, U.C. Press, 1991. Includes: Rubie S. Watson, "Wives, Concubines, and Maids: Servitude and Kinship in the Hong Kong Region, 1900-1940"; Gail Hershatter, "Prostitution and the Market in Women in Early Twentieth-Century Shanghai."

Wolf, Margery, and Roxane Witke, Women in Chinese Society. Stanford U. Press, 1975. Conference volume, ten papers.

(Ref. from others--unknown to me--look up: Katie Curtin, Women in China, New York, Pathfinder Press, 1975. Emily Ahern, "Power and Pollution of Chinese Women," in Arthur Wolf, ed., Studies in Chinese Society, Stanford, 1978, pp. 269-90.)

III. Prostitution, courtesans, concubines, etc.

Chou, Eric. The Dragon and the Phoenix: Love, Sex, and the Chinese. London, Michael Joseph, 1971. Entertaining, full of information; unfortunately, few citations of sources, sloppy. Use with caution.

des Rotours, Robert, Courtisanes chinoises a la fin des T'ang, entre circa 789 et le 8 janvier 881 ( trans. of Pei-li chih or "Anecdotes of the Northern Quarter" by Sun Ch'i, preface 884.

Gronewold, Sue, Beautiful Merchandise: Prostitution in China, 1860-1936. New York, 1985.

(Writings of Gail Hershatter, see above.)

Henriot, Christian. La prostitution a Shanghai aux XIXe-XXe siecles (1849-1958). Doctoral thesis, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris? 1992. 2 vols. (Copy belonging to Fred Wakeman.)

Jaschok, Marie, Concubines and Bondservants: A Social History, Hong Kong, Oxford U. Press, 1988. About concubinage in recent & present times, based on actual cases. (HQ281 J371 1988)

Levy, Howard S. "The Gay Quarters of Ch'ang-an," in: Orient/West 7/9-10, 1962; 8/6, 1963; 9/1, 1964.

---, trans., A Feast of Mist and Flowers: The Gay Quarters of Nanking at the End of the Ming. Yokohama, 1966. Trans. of Yü Huai, "Diverse Records of Wooden Bridge."

--- Harem Favorites of an Illustrious Celestial. Taichung, 1958. On T'ang empresses and imperial consorts, incl. Yang Kuei-fei. DS734 L48.

---, trans. Warm-soft Village: Chinese Stories, Sketches and Essays. Tokyo, 1964. (In this he refers, p. 100, to another book of his titled the Illusory Flame, Tokyo, Kenkyusha, 1962. Find?) (Also, Richard F. S. Yang and Howard S. Levy, trans., Monks and Nuns in a Sea of Sin, Washington, D.C., 1971.)

Mao Hsiang (Mao P'i-chiang), Ying-mei-an i-yü (Reminiscences of the Convent of the Shadowy Plum Blossoms), trans. by Pan Tze-yen as The Reminiscences of Tung Hsiao-wan. Shanghai, Commercial Press, 1931. (714 M296.)

Peterson, Willard. Bitter Gourd: Fang I-chih and the Impetus for Intellectual Change. New Haven, Yale U. Press, 1979. Brief section, pp. 141-45, on Fang and a friend enjoying the Ch'in-Huai quarter in Nanjing.

Waley, Arthur, "The Green Bower Collection." Part I: Oriental Art n.s. III/2, Summer 1957, pp. 50-54; Part II: ibid. III/3, Autumn 1957, 107-110. Trans. of sections of Yüan-period Ch'ing-lou chi, notes on careers of singing girls & actresses, with commentary.

Wolfe, Bernard, "A Chinese Courtesan's Dictionary." (Reprod. from typescript, no date.)

(Note also that John Blofeld, City of Lingering Splendour: A Frank Account of Old Peking's Exotic Pleasures, has much on lives of prostitutes there, how they entertained customers, etc., from consumer's point of view.)

IV. Sex in China, erotic pictures, etc.

(Note: this list can be supplemented with: Eugene C. Burt, Erotic Art: An Annotated Bibliography with Essays, Boston, 1989 (N8217 E6 A12 B871 1989.)

Beurdeley, Michel, with Kristofer Schipper, Chang Fu-jui, and Jacques Pimpaneau, Chinese Erotic Art. Rutland, VT and Tokyo, 1969. Orig. pub. as: The Clouds and the Rain: The Art of Love in China. (EAL fNX650 E7 J483 1969)

Bodde, Dirk. "Sex in Chinese Civilization." In: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 129, pp. 161-72. Reprinted, with changes, in his Chinese Thought, Society, and Science: The Intellectual and Social Background of Science and Technology in Pre-modern China. Honolulu, U. Hawaii Press, 1991. Pp. 270-284: "The Question of Sex."

Byron, John. Portrait of a Chinese Paradise: Erotica and Sexual Customs of the Late Qing Period. London, Quartet Books,1987. Shallow text, aesthetically low-level objects.

Chang, John? Jolan? see under Pampaneau below.

Étiemble. Yun Yu: An Essay on Eroticism and Love in Ancient China, trans. James Haworth. Geneva, Nagel, 1970. (EAL fNX650 E7 E814)

Furth, Charlotte. "Androgenous Males and Deficient Females: Biology and Gender Boundaries in 16th and 17th-Century China. Late Imperial China 9.2, Dec. 1988, 1-31.

Gichner, Lawrence E., Erotic Aspects of Chinese Culture. Washington, D.C., 1957. Pp. 86-113: English trans. of passages in Latin in Edgerton trans. of Chin-p'ing mei.

Humana, Charles, and Wang Wu. The Chinese Way of Love. Hong Kong, CFW Publications,1982. A hodge-podge, but with interesting things in it.

Montagnac, Brigitte de. "Iconographie des 'Images du Printemps'" In: Revue d'Histoire des Arts 11, 1988, 31-40.

Needham, Joseph, ed. Science and Civilization in China, V/5, on "Physiological Alchemy," 184-218: on sexuality as one aspect of this.

Pampaneau, Jacques (Jolan Chang). The Tao of Love and Sex: The Ancient Chinese Way to Ecstasy. Forward and postscript by Joseph Needham. New York, Dutton, 1977. (HQ18 C6. Missing from UC library)

Ruan, Fang Fu, Sex in China: Studies in Sexology in Chinese Culture. New York, 1991.

Rawson, Philip, Erotic Art of the East: The Sexual Theme in Oriental Painting and Sculpture. New York, 1968. Ch. 7-8: China.

(Shen Te-fu essays mentioned by Joanna Handlin, n.12, in book pub. 1619: find.)

van Gulik, R. H. Erotic Colour Prints of the Ming Period. Three volumes. Tokyo, privately printed (50 copies! one in Bancroft), 1951; reprint, Taipei, 198? Note that the series of pictures reproduced as pl. 13-20 in the first volume is almost certainly a fabrication made by van Gulik himself (recognizably in the same style as his illustrations to the Judge Dee mysteries.) Not reliable as evidence for late Ming sexual practice or the representation of it!

van Gulik, R. H. Sexual Life in Ancient China: A Preliminary Survey of Chinese Sex and Society from Circa 1500 B.C. to 1644 A.D. Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1961, 1974. See very critical review by Edward H. Schafer in Journal of the American Oriental Society 81/4, 1961, 452-54.

Wang, N. S., and B. I. Wang, trans. The Fragrant Flower: Classic Chinese Erotica in Art and Poetry (Hua Ying Jin Zhen). New York, Prometheus Books, 1990. Reprints one of the late Ming erotic albums pub. by van Gulik (see above), one of the genuine ones, not v.G.'s fabrication; translates poems. Lightweight. In Morrison Library (!)

West, Stephen H., and Wilt L. Idema, trans., The Moon and the Zither: The Story of the Western Wing. Trans. of play by Wang Shih-fu, 15th cent. Pp. 77-153, "An Introduction to the World of the Western Wing," on love affairs etc. in Ming China & its literature; includes (pp. 151-52) useful list of erotic images and symbols. Also useful: Appendix III, by Yao Dajuin, "The Pleasure of Reading Drama: Illustrations to the Hongzhi Edition of The Story of the Western Wing," pp. 437-468.

Wile, Douglas. Art of the Bedchamber: The Chinese Sexual Yoga Classics, including Women's Solo Meditation Texts. Albany, State U. of New York Press, 1992.

Zheng, Chantal. "La decouverte de l'erotisme a la Chinoise." La Recherche 17, no. 178 (June 1986): 848-49. Nude sculptures from Han tomb. (Haven't seen)

V. Representations of Women in Chinese Painting

Cahill, James, "The Real Mme. Ho-tung." Lecture given at Fogg Murseum, November 1978; repeated in various forms afterwards. Also notes for lecture on "Pictures and Portraits of Women in Chinese Painting" delivered in several places in China in 1988.

Chuang Po-ho, "Female Beauties in Soochow New Year Prints," in Collector's Show of Traditional Soochow Woodblock Prints in Taiwan, R.O.C., Taipei, 1987, pp. 40-44 (Chinese text, w. illust.), 312-317 (English trans.) Good/bad example of unfocused, uncritical treatment of this subject in most Chinese writings.

Hay, John, "The Body Invisible in Chinese Art?" In: Angela Zito and Tani E. Barlow, ed., Body, Subject, and Power in China, Chicago, 1994, 42-77.

Laing, Ellen Johnston. "Amorous Beauty or Aloof Nymph: A Study of Ch'iu Ying's Beauty in Spring Thoughts. Unpub. paper for CAA session? July 1986.

-- "Notes on Ladies Wearing Flowers in Their Hair. Orientations 21/2, Feb. 1990, pp. 32-39. (On Liaoning Museum ptg. attrib. to Chou Fang.)

-- "Chinese Palace-Style Poetry and the Depiction of A Palace Beauty. In Art Bulletin 72/2, June 1990, pp. 284-295.

Lin Xiaoping, "Women and the Moon in Southern Sung Album Leaves." Seminar paper, Yale U., 1988.

Maeda, Robert, "The Portrait of a Woman of the Late Ming-Early Ch'ing Period: Madame Ho-tung." Archives of Asian Art XXVII, 1973-74, pp. 46-52.

-- "Some Sung, Chin, and Yüan Representations of Actors." Artibus Asiae XLI, 1979, 1320156. A few notes--not much--on actresses.

Murray, Julia. "The Nü hsiao ching and Sung Textual Illustration: Problems of reconstruction and artistic context." Ars Orientalis XVIII, 19 . pp. 95-129.

-- "Women's Social Roles as Reflected in Chinese Paintings." Draft paper, lecture? unpublished. Simple taxonomic approach.

Shan Guoqiang (Palace Mus., Beijing). "Ku-tai shih-nü-hua so-t'an" (Random Notes on Ancient Paintings of Beautiful Women), in Ku-kung po-wu-yüan yüan-k'an (Palace Museum Journal), 1981 no. 2, pp. 44-48. More or less the same? in his "Preface" to Li-tai shih-nü-hua hsüan (see below under reprod. books.)

Vinograd, Richard, Boundaries of the Self: Chinese Portraits 1600-1900, Cambridge and New York, 1992, pp. 95-97: brief passage on two portraits of women.

Wang Yao-t'ing, trans. by Deborah A. Sommer. "Images of the Heart: Chinese Paintings on a Theme of Love." Part I: National Palace Museum Bulletin v. XXII no. 5, Nov.-Dec. 1987, pp. 1-21; Part II: ibid. v. XXII no. 6, Jan.-Feb. 1988, pp. 1-21.

Wappenschmidt, Friederike Gabriele. Das Bild der Schönen Frau in der Chinesischen Malerei. Dissertation, Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Bonn, 1978.

Weidner, Marsha. "In Her Studio: Late Ming and Qing-Dynasty Images of Female Writers and Artists." Paper for CAA session on "Genres in Chinese Painting," Houston, 19 .

Also: student papers from lecture courses, not without value:
-Bernadette Bell, "Life in the Palace: T'ang Dynasty Court Ladies in Paintings attributed to Chou Fang." Term paper, 1979.
- Jane Ginsky, "Reality and Fiction in T'ang Court Lady Paintings." Term paper, 1991.
- Hilary Lade, "Illustrations to the Theme of Cai Wenji." Term paper, 1982.
- Susan Teicholz, "The 'Ladies with Flowered Headdresses' Handscroll," term paper, n.d.
Lawrence Wu, "T'ang Figure Painting of Women." Term paper, n.d. A few useful literary references.

VI. Women in Chinese Literature; love poetry.

Birrell, Ann, trans., Yü-t'ai hsin-yung (New Songs from a Jade Terrace): An Anthology of Early Chinese Love Poetry. London, Allen & Unwin, 1982. Paperback reprint, Penguin, 1986. "Poems about palace ladies, courtesans, deserted wives, and separated lovers" (James Liu review in JAS) Trans. of anthology of love poetry compiled around 545 by court poet Hsü Ling, with poems from 2nd cent. B.C. to time of compilation. Notes at back give much info. on erotic imagery. PL2518 N48.

-- "The Dusty Mirror: Courtly Portraits of Woman in Southern Dynasties Love Poetry." In: Robert E. Hegel and Richard C. Hessney, eds., Expressions of Self in Chinese Literature, New York, Columbia U. Press, 1985, 33-69.

Cahill, Suzanne, "Sex and the Supernatural in Medieval China: Cantos on the Transcendent Who Presides Over the River." Journal of the American Oriental Society 105.2, 1985, pp. 197-220.

Chang, Chun-shu, and Shelley Hsueh-lun Chang. Crisis and Transformation in Seventeenth-century China: Society, Culture, and Modernity in Li Yü's World. Ann Arbor, U. Mich. Press, 1992. Espec. pp. 67-70, 206-213, plus notes: on women in Li Yü's life and writings. Idealizes Li Yü somewhat, but interesting, useful.

Chang, Kang-i Sun, The Late-Ming Poet Ch'en Tzu-lung: Crises of Love and Loyalism. New Haven and London, Yale U. Press, 1991. I:2: "The Concept of Ch'ing and Late-Ming Images of Women." Good discussion of romantic love in late Ming, its expressions in literature. I:3: "Ch'en Tzu-lung and the Woman Poet Liu Shih." II.4: "Tz'u Songs of Passion." All very good-read.

--- : "The Device of the Mask in the Poetry of Wu Wei-yeh (1609-1671)." In: Willard J. Peterson et. al., eds., The Power of Culture: Studies in Chinese Cultural History, Hong kong, The Chinese University Press, 1994, pp. 246-274. Long section on the late Ming courtesan-poet Pien Yü-ching.

Edwards, Louise. "Representations of Women and Social Power in Eighteenth-century China: The Case of Wang Xifeng." In: Late Imperial China 14/1, June 1993, pp. 34-59.

Fusek, Lois, trans. Among the Flowers: The Hua-chien chi. New York, Columbia U. Press, 1982. A mid-10th cent. anthology of love poetry in tz'u form.

Hessney, Richard. "Beyond Beauty and Talent: The Moral and Chivalric Self in The Fortunate Union." In: Hegel & Hessney, eds. (see above), pp. 214-250.

Levenson, Christopher, trans. The Golden Casket: Chinese Novellas of Two Millenia. From the German of Wolfgang Bauer and Herbert Franke. New York, Harcourt Brace, 1964.

Ma, Y. W., and Joseph S. M. Lau, eds., Traditional Chinese Stories: Themes and Variations. New York, Columbia U. Press, 1978. Lots of love stories etc. Intreresting: "The Oil Peddler Courts the Courtesan," from Feng Meng-lung's Hsing-shih heng-yen, 1620s; woman who became courtesan, advice on ways of leaving profession, etc.

McMahon, Keith, "The Classic 'Beauty-Scholar' Romance and the Superiority of the Talented Woman." In: Angela Zito and Tani E. Barlow, eds., Body, Subject, and Power in China, Chicago, 1994, pp. 227-252.

- - Misers, Shrews, and Polygamists: Sexuality and Male-Female Relations in Eighteenth-century Chinese Fiction. Durham and London, Duke University Press, 1995.

McLaren, Anne E., trans. The Chinese Femme Fatale: Stories from the Ming Period. Sydney, Australia, U. of Sydney (East Asia Series #8), 1994.

Owen, Stephen. Mi-Lou: Poetry and the Labyrinth of Desire. Cambridge, Harvard U. Press, 1989. On erotic and love poetry, Chinese and western. Meditative.

Swatek, Catherine. "Images of Women and Their Men in Two Plays by Tang Xianzu." Yale Conference, 225-246.

Wagner, Marsha L., "Maids and Servants in Dream of the Red Chamber: Individuality and the Social Order." In: Hegel & Hessney, eds. (see above). pp. 251-281.

Wu, Yenna, "Proto-feminist Thought in Ming-Qing Fiction." Yale Conference, 269-287.

Yu, Anthony, "Literature and the Conflict of Desire in The Story of the Stone.." Yale Conference, 126-175. On reading of erotic book by Bao Yü & Lin Dai-yü in Hong-lou Meng. Also pornographic picture discovered in Ta-yüan Garden.

Zeitlin, Judith T. Historian of the Strange: Pu Songling and the Chinese Classical Tale. Stanford, 1993. Ch. 4: "Dislocations in Gender."

-- "Embodying the Disembodied: Representations of Ghosts and the Feminine in 17th-Century Chinese Literature." Yale Conference 1-17.

(Also good: brief section on "Women in Traditional Chinese Literature" in Yi-tsi Feuerwerker's "Women as Writers in the 1920s and 1930s," in Wolf, & Witke, eds., Women in Ch. Society, pp. 146-55.)

Cyril Birch, ed., Anthology of Chinese Literature vol. I (New York, Grove Press, 1965) pp. 290-322, gives trans. of two classic T'ang-period love stories: Yüan Chen, "The Story of Ts'ui Ying-ying" (basis of Hsi-hsiang chi later); Po Hsing-chien, "The Story of Miss Li."

VII. Women painters

Hagman, Lorrie. "Ladies of the Jade Studio: Women Artists of China." In: Peterson, Karen, and J. J. Wilson, Women Artists: Recognition and Reappraisal: from the early Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century. 1976. Appendix, pp. 144-203.

Hsü, Pang-ta (Xu Bangda), "Women Painters' Works in the Palace Museum." Chinese Literature 1959 no. 7, 163-67.

Laing, Ellen. "Wives, Daughters, and Lovers: Three Ming Dynasty Women Painters." In: Marsha Weidner, ed., Views from Jade Terrace, 31-39.

Li, Shih, "Kuei-ko chung ti t'ien-ts'ai" (Genius in the Women's Quarters.) Ku-kung po-wu-yüan yüan-k'an (Palace Museum Journal), 1990 no. 3, 92-95. On Wen Shu and Ch'iu Chu (or Ch'iu Shih). Also two others. (Note: Li Shih also organized an exhibition of works of women painters in the Palace Museum in the same year; no catalog.)

T'ang Sou-yü, Yü-t'ai hua-shih (Jade Terrace History of Painting.) 19th century. The basic Chinese source for information on Chinese women painters; see my Liu Yin article pp. 104-05 and note 6.

Tseng, Yu-ho, "Hsüeh Wu and Her Orchids in the Collection of the Honolulu Academy of Arts." Arts Asiatiques II/3, 1955, pp. 197-208. Pioneering, still interesting.

-- "Women Painters of the Ming Dynasty." In Artibus Asiae LIII/1-2, 1993, 249-261. English version of unpublished paper presented in Chinese at "Symposium on Painting of the Ming Dynasty," Art Gallery, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 30 Nov.-2 Dec., 1988. On Ma Shou-chen (15448-ca. 1605), Hsüeh Wu (1564-ca. 1673), Wen Shu (1595-1634), and Liu Yin (1610-1685.)

Weidner, Marsha, "Ladies of the Lake: The Seventeenth Century Landscape Painters Lin Hsüeh, Yang Hui-lin, and Huang Yüan-chieh." Draft paper: do not cite.

Weidner, Marsha, et. al. Views from Jade Terrace: Chinese Women Artists, 1300-1912. Catalog of an exhibition. Indianapolis, Indianapolis Museum of Art, 1988. Includes useful essays by Marsha, Ellen Laing, Irving Lo. Pp. 176-87: "Index of Extant and Reproduced Paintings by Women."

Weidner, Marsha, ed. Flowering in the Shadows: Women in the History of Chinese and Japanese Painting. Honolulu, U. of Hawaii Press, 1990. Essays include: Julia Murray on Ladies' Classic of Filial Piety scrolls; Ellen Laing on "Women Painters in Traditional China"; Cahill on "The Painting of Liu Yin"; Weidner on the painter Ch'en Shu.

(Note: Ayscough, Chinese Women, includes sections on the calligrapher Wei Fu-jen, pp. 198-202, and the painters Kuan Tao-sheng, 202-210, and Ma Ch'üan, 210-213.)

VIII. Women poets, women writers

Furth, Charlotte, and James Lee, eds. Symposium on Poetry and Women's Culture in Late Imperial China. In: Late Imperial China 13.1, June 1992 (special issue.) Papers delivered at symposium at UCLA, October 1990. Includes:
- Dorothy Ko, "Pursuing Talent and Virtue: Education and Women's Culture in 17th- and 18th-Century China."
- Susan Mann, "'Fuxue' (Women's Learning) by Zhang Xuecheng (1738-1801): China's First History of Women's Culture."
- Maureen Robertson, "Voicing the Feminine: Constructions of the Gendered Subject in Lyric Poetry by Women of Medieval and Late Imperial China." (Note long & useful footnote on concept of "negotiation," p. 65. )
- Ellen Widmer, "Xiaoqing's Literary Legacy and the Place of the Woman Writer in Late Imperial China."
- Marie Florine Bruneau, "Learned and Literary Women in Late Imperial China and Early Modern Europe."

Gerstlacher, Anna, et. al., eds. Woman and Literature in China. Bochum, Studienverlag Brockmeyer, 1985. (From Marsha's biblio. in Jade Terrace; haven't seen.)

Hu, Pin-ching, Li Ch'ing-chao. New York, 1966.

Lo, Irving Yucheng. "Daughters of the Muses of China." In: Marsha Weidner, ed., Views from the Jade Terrace. Brief, interesting essay on women poets in China.

Rexroth, Kenneth, and Ling Chung, trans. and ed., Women Poets of China. New York, 1972. (An anthology; previously published as Orchid Boat: Women Poets of China.)

-- Li Ch'ing-chao: Complete Poems. New York, 1979. (See also long section on her in Ayscough, Chinese Women, pp. 178-195.)

Robertson, Maureen, "Voicing the Feminine: Constructions of the Gendered Subject in Lyric Poetry by Women of Medieval and Late Imperial China." Late Imperial China 13/1, June 1992, 63-110.

(Maureen Robertson, U. of Iowa: met at AAS mtgs, L.A., March 1993, said she is writing book on women writers in Ming-Ch'ing; some were also painters.)

Saussy, Haun. "Women's Writing Before and Within the Hong lou meng." Yale symposium, 115-125.

Widmer, Ellen, "The Epistolatory World of Female Talent in 17th century China," Late Imperial China 10.2, 1989, 1-43. Letters written by women, as preserved in three 17th cent. anthologies. Some stuff on women painters, and on Yüan Mei and his woman pupils.

IX. Miscellaneous

Chow, Rey, Woman and Chinese Modernity: The Politics of Reading Between West and East. Minneapolis, U. of Minnesota Press, 1991.

Eberhard, Wolfram. Guilt and Sin in Traditional China. Berkeley, U.C. Press, 1967 (BJ117 E2)

Hinsch, Bret, Passions of the Cut Sleeve: The Male Homosexual Tradition in China. Berkeley, U.C. Press, 1990.

Levy, Howard. Chinese Footbinding: the History of a Curious Erotic Custom. New York, w. Rawls, 1966. (Anthro. GN161 L4)

Wakeman, Frederic, "Romantics, Stoics, and Martyrs in Seventeenth-century China," in Journal of Asian Studies 43/4, August 1984, pp. 631-665. Deals with, among other things, romantic liaisons between late Ming-early Ch'ing scholar-officials and courtesans.

Yü, Chün-fang, "Images of Kuan-yin in Ming-Ch'ing Popular Literature." Yale Conference, 212-224.

X. Relevant? readings in writings on western art, feminist art history, etc.

(On body & gender issues in medieval-renaissance art: bibliography for Christelle Baskins's spring 1993 course)

Broude, Norma, and Mary D. Garrard, ed., The Expanding Discourse: Feminism and Art History. New York, Harper Collins, 1993?

Bryson, Norman, Tradition and Desire: From David to Delacroix. Cambridge, England, and New York, Cambridge U. Press, 1984. Ch. 5: "Vision and Desire."

Clayson, Hollis, Painted Love: Prostitution in French Art of the Impressionist Era. New Haven, Yale U. Press, 1993?

Cropper, Elizabeth, "The Beauty of Women: Problems in the Rhetoric of Renaissance Portraiture." In: Rewriting the Renaissance: The Discourses of Sexual Difference in Early Modern Europe, Chicago, 1986, pp. 175-190.

Clark, T. J., The Painting of Modern Life: Paris in the Art of Manet and His Followers. Princeton, Princeton U. Press, 1984. Ch. 2, "Olympia's Choice."

Hagan, Tracy, "Drawn By Desire: a Study of the Female Image in Modern Art History." In: John Deely and Terry Prewitt, ed., Semiotics 1991: Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the Semiotic Society of America, ? Maryland, 1992.

(Lynn Lawner, draft essay: "A Few Words about Courtesans in Renaissance Culture." Ms. Deals with "I modi" by Giulio Romano and Marcantonio Raimondi, with sonnets by Pietro Aretino. Also: Lynn Lawner, ed. & trans., I Modi: The Sixteen Pleasures, An Erotic Album of the Italian Renaissance. Evanston, U. of Illinois Press, 1988.

Nochlin, Linda. "Women, Art, and Power." In: Norman Bryson, Michael Ann Holly, and Keith Moxey, ed., Visual Theory: Painting & Interpretation, New York, HarperCollins, 1991, pp. 13-46. (Two shorter responses to it follow.)

Suleiman, Susan Rubin, Subversive Intent: Gender, Politics, and the Avant-Garde. Cambridge and London, Harvard U. Press, 1990.

XI. Reproduction books, Printed Picture Books

Palace Museum, Beijing. Li-tai shih-nü hua hsüan-chi (Selected Paintings of Female Figures Through the Ages from the Collection of the Palace Museum.) Tientsin, People's Art Pub. Co., 1981. Based on an exhibition. Abbrev. as Shih-nü.

National Palace Museum, Taipei. Shih-nü hua chih mei (Glimpses into the Hidden Quarters: Paintings of Women from the Middle Kingdom). Taipei, National Palace Museum, 1988.

Nanjing Museum. Ming Ch'ing jen-wu hsiao-hsiang hua-hsüan (Portrait Paintings of the Ming and Ch'ing Dynasties), Shanghai, People's Art Pub. Co., 1982. English text. 22-23: portrait of the courtesan K'ou Pai-men, by Fan Ch'i and Wu Hung, 1650. 34-37: "Enjoying Ladies' Entertainment" by Yü Chih-ting. 52: Portrait of Mme. Han. 53: Portrait of Ku Mei (? how identified?). 71: "Portrait" of a lady by Fei Tan-hsü. (Lin Tai-yü sweeping petals?) 73: Lady by Jen Hsiung. 82-83: Portrait of Yang Chio-hsien, by Jen Po-nien + portraitist. Abbrev. as Nanjing Portraits.

(Ku-kung Po-wu-yüan ts'ang) Ch'ing-tai kung-t'ing hui-hua (The Collection of the Palace Museum: Court Painting of the Qing Dynasty.) Beijing, Cultural Relics Pub. House, 1992. Abbrev. as Court Ptg.

Lieh-nü chuan (Biog. of Eminent Women), late Ming edition; preface of 1799 says edited by Wang Tao-k'un (1525-93), illustrated by Ch'iu Ying (d. ca. 1552). Both doubtful. See Carliltz, "Women, Money, Virtue" pp. 18-19; discussed also in her "Social Uses." Recent facsimile reprint.

Ku Chien-lung? Ch'ing-kung chen-pao) Pi-mei t'u ("Two Hundred Beauties Pictures," illus. to Chin-p'ing Mei, "The Plum in the Golden Vase." Commissioned by? K'ang-hsi Emperor or someone in court?, kept in imperial court, Ch'ien-lung imperial seals. Pub. in 1940s?, recent reprint, 2 vols. (Eight leaves now in Nelson Gal.,K.C.; 17 in col. of Andrew Franklin, London. Rest was in col. of Chang Hsüeh-liang, Taipei; where now?)

XII. Paintings not to miss:

- K'ang T'ao portrait in Kuang-tung hsing pl. 218: looks interesting.

- Wu Wei's 1503 ptg. of Li Nu-nu dancing & singing to entertain guests at age 10, insc. by T'ang Yin & others. Quanji VI/121.

- Portrait of Tung Chi (Courtesan Tung) by Ch'ien Ku, insc. by Hsiang Sheng-mo & others. Quanji VII/136. Fine!

- First surviving portrait of woman is of course Ma-wang-tui #1 banner. But see Wu Hung, Early China 17, 122, on this.

- The "Twelve Concubines of Yung-cheng Emperor" series. Reprod. as calendar, etc. See Huang Miao-tzu in Forbidden City 20, 1983.4, on these. But: article by Chu Chia-chin in ibid. 34, 1986/3, p. 45 identifies them properly as panels in decorative screen.

-British Museum "Portrait of a Lady": has Leng Mei seals. Suzuki Archive E15-041. See Maeda article fn. 32 for ref.

- Lo P'ing portrait of Su Hsiao-hsiao, 1781, Lin Po-shou col., Taipei. See Lan-ch'ien shan-kuan 29, 20 (?)

- Anon. "Eight Beauties on Hibiscus Terrace." (Said to be concubines of T'ang Yin!) Hong Kong, Horstmann & Godfrey, Ltd. Reprod. Artist is a certain Hua Hsüan.

- Series of illustrations to the novel Chin-p'ing mei, early 18c? Reprod. in 2 vols.; eight of them in Nelson-Atkins Museum, K.C. Some overtly erotic. Were "Property of Andrew Franklin, C.V.O., C.B.E., former British China Consular Service" (Sotheby's auction cat., June 2, 1987, #80: fourteen more leaves sold then. 13-1/4 x 12-1/2" (39.6 x 31.7 cm.) Est: $50-70,000.

- Portrait of Tung Hsiao-wan by Yü Chih-ting in Shen-chou kuo-kuang chi 18, with dedication.

- Ch'iu Ying Lieh-nü chuan (Eminent Women) scroll: TSYMC hua-hsüan; same? in T'u-mu VI/18-09. Nanjing U. Ch'ien-lung etc. seals. Genuine? Also one in Freer, see Thomas Lawton, Chinese Figure Painting.no. 9, pp. 58-69.

- Ch'ien Hsüan pictures of Yang Kuei-fei and Ming-huang, see Cahill article in Archives 12, 1958, espec. pp. 20-21. Cf. Levy, Harem Favorites, last section, on Yang Kuei-fei ("Precious Consort Yang") for "iconography" of this, e.g. pp. 148-49, "mounting horse" and "playing flute." Also pictures of Yang Kuei-fei bathing, e.g. Anon. Ming picture in Sô Gen 193.

-Wu Yu-jen (Wu Yu-ju) album of twelve ptgs of women, dtd. 1890: in Masterworks of Shanghai School Painters from Shanghai Museum Collections, Hong Kong, Tai Yip, 1991, no 47. (No. 48 in same: lady in garden with bamboo & banana palm by Hu T'ieh-mei: extreme contrast.) Others in this book: no. 2, Fei Tan-hsü; no. 42, Fei I-keng; no. 50, Jen I (Po-nien), lady painting leaf, cf. Kai Ch'i;

- Albums by 19c artists, figures in gardens etc., with male and female figures (not usually together): my Jen Hsiung; my Jen Hsün; Ni T'ien (Shanghai School Ptrs, see above, no. 82). What differentiates in settings, poses, attributes, etc.?

- Quanji 10 (Ch'ing 2)) 108: portrait of Li Ch'ing-chao! (How do we know?) Also in Shih-nü hua (see above).

- Real (?) portrait of her: by Wang I, Yuan dynasty portraitist, dtd. 1354, copying an original by Ou-yang Hsiao-hsia (who?) dtd. 1114; these survive only in later copies, e.g. one in Palace Mus., Beijing, by Chin Li-ying, dtd. 1800.

- Anon. 18c ptg of lady by rock & banana palm, w. inscription by Yüan Mei: To-yün-hsüan ts'ang-hua hsüan pl. 25.

- T'ao Hung album of ladies, Tumu IV/1-2821, Shanghai: kind of taxonomy of accepted types/roles in early Ch'ing? Others of this kind.

- Another "longing lady" by Huang Chüan, late Ming-early Ch'ing, Fukien artist. Chung-kuo shu-hua 20, 1986/12, pp. 22, 23. Also in TôSô 398.

- Beautiful lady seated on rock, dtd. 1640, by Huang Shih-fu, late Ming Fujian master (YCH p. 1140), in Palace Mus., Beijing (Shih-nü #23). "No.18 in series" acc. to his insc.

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